The NOTA-Porrah spelling for the Andalusian language

The Normah Ortográfikah pa la Trahkrizión del Andalú (NOTA-Porrah) is a proposal for writing the Andalusian language that began its journey from the end of the eighties of the twentieth century, which found its first formal expression as graphic norms in 2000, in the form of option B from the document Normâ ortográfiqâ pa l’andalú. Propuehta trabaho / Normah ortográfikah pal andalú. Propuehta’e trabaho joint work between Professors Gorka Reondo Lanzâ and Huan Porrah Blanko.

Subsequently, both authors disaggregated their work due to the different paradigmatic conception of the approach of writing in Andalusian, thus exemplifying the internal debate in the andalophilic movement between the proposals of an etymological nature (G. Reondo, T. Gutier, EPA?) and those of ethnolinguistic transcription (H. Porrah, J. Arjona, Y. al Malah, PAO). In this way, the linguistic anthropologist Huan Porrah Blanko somewhat reformulated his “orthographic” proposal to write Andalú —incorporating suggestions from its users— forming the document currently in force called NOTA-Porrah (2009), in its summarized or extensive versions.

The NOTA-Porrah graphic norm —more than orthographic, in its strict sense, because of its peculiar flexibility— arose to respond to the need for a flexible “orthographic” template by means of which the orality of the Andalusian could be written down (transcribe from orality to graphic text) in its multiple dialect varieties, using the major uniform criteria possible. From the principle of linguistic respect to the richness that the set of varieties of the Andalusian implies, the NOTA-Porrah aim to be a sufficiently versatile and tolerant tool that reflects the main characteristics and singularities of phonology, morphosyntactics and semantics of the Andalusian language, whose unit we have to understand, based on the greater similarity between its variants than they may have with other extra-Andalusian varieties or not derived from the Andalusian language.

The details of the writing proposals of the NOTA have been scientifically debated and defended in the successive Huntah d’ehkritoreh en andalú – Juntâ d’ehcritorê en andalú / Reunión de escritores-as en andaluz / Meeting of Andalusian Writers, organized by the Society for the Study of Andalú (ZEA). As defended by its main promoter, Prof. Huan Porrah, we are not currently at the right time in the Andalusian society to take the leap towards a hasty normative standardization of Andalusia, towards the creation of a restrictive normative standard of Andalusian dialect wealth, since the greatest urgency lies in rescuing the linguistic diversity of the Andalusian variants from their generational disappearance, generating writings in the multiple dialects of the genuine Andalusian to obtain a literary heritage corpus, on which perhaps some type of normalization will be consolidated in the future institutionalizing use —if sociopolitical circumstances facilitate it1.

In this rescue process, the unity of the Andalusian system is facilitated through the use of this writing template —which acquires a large part of its proposals from the model proposed by the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)—, which seeks to reflect in user writing the greatest similarities to the disparities between the different linguistic varieties of the Andalusian language, attending to graphically reflect, for example, the multiplicity of interconnected and rooted phonological phenomena in the territories on a fluctuating scale, and sometimes apparently capricious but locally and intensely identity.

Thus, with the NOTA it is possible to accommodate the most representative singular keys of the internal diversity of the Andalusian phonological system by means of a simple, univocal, fair and systematic writing2, for example: reflecting the transcription of the system’s whistling diversity —lisp, seseo, Andalusian distinction—, also the variation evolved towards the heheo, or writing with h the highest degree of open tonic final vowels present in many varieties, in addition to including the possibility of reflecting the lenition of /x/ into [h] with h, or the most pronounced guttural pronunciation of the velar phoneme /x/ with j in the so-called Tierra der ronkío (‘Snoring land’), among other possibilities of the writing system.

PlaceTozahArkalá G.JaénBenamehíArmeríaMiha
h vs. jsonorous hsonorous hsnoring jsonorous hjsonorous h
degree of open tonic final vowel



Comparative table of examples of local features collected in Porrah (2020: 124).

And not only does the perspective of ethnolinguistic writing remain in the mere literalistic phonetic and phonological transcription of the andalú —one of the main reductionisms of the simplistic and unscientific approach that some carry out—, but it goes further defending a holistic conception of the Andalusian language, including genuine broader morphosyntactic, lexico-semantic and grammatical aspects. But emphasizing the NOTA-Porrah (2009) spelling, insofar as it is inspired by said ethnolinguistic sensitivity, in that the reference or model of Andalusian pronunciation —and the wide set of characteristics, although not exclusive, of this language— to which wants to reflect in writing is in the speech of the Andalusian speakers themselves, and not in their consideration as speaking resulting from an alleged systematic deformation of Castilian>Spanish. Therefore, it considers it being convenient to rethink many studies about the andalú that characterize the Andalusian linguistic features as a simple “degenerative” change from the “purity” of Castilian, understood this a priori as a standardized dialect; being the evolution and linguistic change previous and certainly parallel to its written substitute, it is convenient to attend and value the Andalusian language from its orality and its own historical process3, primarily, as a model or reference to follow for its writing.

Finally, it should be noted that the NOTA-Porrah (2009) are in accordance with the Recomendación ortográfica de la ZEA (2019) (‘Spelling Recommendation of the ZEA’), a document agreed by its Board of Directors to guide and give a certain sense and unity of criteria to the various writing proposals of the Andalusian that coexist in the present.

Examples of writing in andalú according to the NOTA-Porrah (2009)

Let’s see some paragraphs written in Andalusian, according to this “orthographic” system, of speakers of several varieties, for example.

a) Variant of the Malaga’s Algarbia:

To ehto de mientra ke bombardean er kañaberá grande a xinazo limpio kon lah ametrayaorah de zuh braziyoh. Rematan er montón i guerben a zalì hopeando p’arriba a akurrukarze en debaho’e la zombra’er harmín. Zuh z’ohiyoh ehtán mu fihoh gihpando par kañaberá grande, entre haleo i haleo dun rezueyo ke tarda en gorbè a zu bezana. Paza un guen rato i er Kanko no zale. Dezidíoh a rematà zu empeño, repiten unah pokah’e bezeh la operazión, abahando a ka beh una mihiya mah zerka der kañaberá, ke no pierden nunka de la bihta. Pero er Kanko, u Kanke, no zale. «Ehtá dormío», ze dizen entre loh z’ermanoh, argo mah zeguroh de ke la menguante luh del ahkurezé no le guhta dehmaziao ar mohtro kohe-kome-niñoh. «Le guhta la kaló, de kuando er zó pika», rezuerbe el ermano mayó, a la mihma beh k’ehkuxan la boh de zu aguela dehe lo arto’er zerro:

–¡Niñooooh! ¡Benirze ya pa la kazaaaa, k’ehtá ehkureziendo i ze ba hazè de noxe!

b) Speaker from Alcalá de Guadaíra (Seville):

En el armasén abía muhereh, i ombreh también, loh toneleroh, k’eh lo ke asían loh toneleh, lah barrikah ke le disíamoh (…) Rekiriendo eh exándole agua a loh barrileh d’asitunah, ke se sekan d’ehtà ar só; gueno, agua no, sarmuera (…) ‘Raberah’ eh kohè lah asitunah ke se kaen en loh sueloh [dehde lah mesah]; se kaían ar suelo i una xikiya —mah xikah ke yo, ke tenía trese añoh— lah kohía; leh desían raberah. Loh bokoyeh son loh toneleh grandeh d’asitunah, abía otroh ke son lah kuarterolah, k’eh lah ke yenábamoh nosotroh. Ehto eh ehkohiendo l’asituna: si ai arguna piká, lah mah grandeh, lah mah xikah, lah mah gordah. [Ehtah muhereh se yamaban] ehkohedorah, del ehkohío. [Nuehtro grupo era de] reyenadorah, otrah eran lah ke le kitaban er gueso a l’asituna, desguesadorah. I ehta era mi mesa, donde yo trabahaba, yo trabahaba ar fondo i ehtah to eran mih kompañerah. [En el afoto (páh. 91)] yo ehtaba a la bera der hefe, klaro, ehtá mu ohkuro i no se be; aí tenía yo diesiséih añoh si akaso.

c) Speaker from Almería city:

En Armería aora mihmo sige abiendo el seseo, sí se da el seseo, pero cada beh menoh; i sin embargo en loh puebloh de poniente aí sí se da mah el zezeo, kon la zeta —l’Arpujarra, Berja, Adra, k’ehtá pegá a la kohta. En la parte orientáh ai menoh zezeo i ai mah seseo (…) Yo kreo ke seseo mah ke zezeo [kuando ablo]. Yo aht’aze mu pokito sí ke tenía palabrah en er bokabulario kon seseo. [Pero tú dihtingeh, al ehtilo kahteyano, ¿no?] Sí, yo dihtingo porke… en er kolejio, el ihtituto i demáh s’empeñaban muxo en kitahnoh el azento. Entonzeh yo a la mejóh tengo menoh azento pork’eh ke s’empeñaban… I oi muxa jente en Almería tenemoh menoh azento porke Armería era pekeñita i toh íbamoh… pekeñika eh una palabra… ke akí siempre s’ablao kon iko —¡ké boniko!, ¡ké pekeñiko!, ¡ké xikitiko!…—, pero en loh ihtitutoh sobretó, en loh kolejioh, s’empeñaban en kitahnoh er zezeo, er seseo, el iko… Todo nuehtro bokabulario real, nuehtra forma de hablar, nuehtro azento. Todo eso… la lengua, la literatura, noh maxakaban en la pronunziazión.

d) Speaker from Tózar (Grenada):

[Mah antiguamente] Tozah era un lugáh kon muxoh xaparroh donde abía una produhzión de beyotah bahtante grande. Dehpuéh, kon er ziglo XVII i XVIII, de to loh dehmonteh ke l’izieron z’a perdío er xaparro i a keao zolamente unah kuantah zonah de xaparro en er monte… Ehtaba to rodeao de xaparroh i la produhzión de beyotah era bahtante importante, toabía aún en er ziglo XVIII.

(…) En Tozah ai treh zeñorikoh ke lo tienen to, i loh demáh eh hente ke trabaha lah tierrah de loh zeñorikoh, no eh komo en otroh puebloh k’a la mehó ehtá la koza mah repartía (…) Me kontaron un día ke lah klazeh zozialeh der pueblo eran pobreh, pobretikoh i pobretoneh: pobreh eran loh ke no pazaban ambre, pero tenían un troziyo de tierra pa podèh ìh tirando; loh pobretikoh loh ke bibían zolamente de loh peoneh der kampo; i loh pobretoneh loh ke bibían de la karidá d’ezoh pobreh, ke no tenían ni pa dàh loh peoneh der kampo, loh ke eran loh pobreh de zolehniá.

e) Speaker from Jaén city:

Kuando yo era xikitiyo, komo mi padre era maehtro arbañíh, pueh e aprendío muxah palabrah de la obra. Komo la gabeta, k’eh una diferenzia d’artesiya d’amasàh yeso, i se diferenzia en k’en la diagonáh tiene unoh salienteh de madera, porke komo antiguamente loh tejaoh s’azían kon una armadura de madera i s’enkañaban, pueh entre biga i biga se ponían unah kañah maehtrah, i luego kon lah tomizah s’iban atando lah kañah, i dehpuéh d’ehtàh atáh lah kañah, pueh s’exaba en la gabeta… s’amasaba yeso mu klaro i s’exaba sobre lah kañah i s’ehtendía. A eso se yamaba engatufàh, eh una palabra típikamente nuehtra (…) Luego, pueh… to la terminolojía antigua de lah kasah, ke s’azían de tapialeh, kon loh kofreh der tapiáh, ké eran lah abujah, k’eran lah ke se ponían abajo, loh kohteroh, ke se ponían a loh laoh p’asujetàh loh tabloneh, luego kon lah tomizah, de kohtero a kohtero, u kon un palo, se le daba garrotera pa ke s’apretaran, i uno’e loh kohteroh era mah grande i tenía una ehpezie de orka k’era donde se ponía la garruxa, pa tiràh de la tierra. Entonzeh abía muxah erramientah, komo el ehzixe, la ehkoda, la pikola, en fin… To la terminolojía de l’arbañilería l’aprendí…

f) Speaker from Benamejí (Cordova):

E trabahao siempre en er kampo. En l’aseituna. Yo, kuando era hoben, yo bibía en un kortiho, i trabahaba pa mi familia; trabahabamoh toh familiarmente en la kasa. Yo lo mihmo e kuidao bakah, k’e arrankao garbansoh, de to lah kosah der kampo… pero familiarmente, ke no era ke yo fuera a trabahà kon nadie, kon ningún señorito. En er kortiho ehtube yo dehde loh dieh a loh diesisiete añoh, i ya kuando noh binimoh ar pueblo yo trabahaba en l’aseituna en loh imbiehnoh. Luego, por er berano, mi padre arrendaba tierrah i sembraba matalaúba o asía kuatro kosiyah, pero en er berano poko, i lo kohíamoh entre mi ermano i yo; pero trabahà a horná a sío siempre a l’aseituna (…), i a la uba tambié e ehtao, pero en Puente Hení, ¡bamoh!; yo no e ío lehoh nunka ni na (…)

Ar kampo a kohè asitunah; en imbiehno malísimo, k’asía frío pa rebentà (…); en la Bega d’Antekera, ¡ke no me beah por la mañana k’ehtaba…! (…) Yo e ío a kohè asitunah, i a abío k’ensendè una kandela pa podè kalentahnoh lah manoh, porke lah asitunah no lah podíamoh kohè der suelo porke la ehkarxa k’abía era tremenda, ¡eso no era normá!, der frío k’asía. El agua amanesía kuahá en loh bañoh: eso era asè frío, i yobè semanah enterah (…) Anteh yobía, asía frío… Nosotroh bibíamoh en un kortiho ke se yama La barka de Palensiana, k’atrabesaba er río [Hení]. Entonseh mi madre se dedikaba a pasà la hente en la barka (…) Una beh bino una riá enorme i se yebó la barka i to, ehtando er kortiho en lo arto, ke yegó el agua kasi a la era. Entonseh yo no pude terminà er kolehio, nosotrah no pudimoh terminà er kolehio, porke no podíamoh pasà a aker lao, komo Benamehí lo kohíamoh mah lehoh pueh no podíamoh benì ar pueblo. Yo no terminé er kolehio, pero me saké mi graduado ehkolá en la ehkuela d’adurtoh (…) A mí me guhtaba la ehkuela…

Media echo: Er Prinzipito

The work written in Andalusian that has generated the most media coverage and public knowledge is, without a doubt, the translation of the classic text by Saint-Exupéry The Little Prince as Er Prinzipito, commissioned to Huan Porrah by the German publisher Edition Tintenfaß. This translation was released in 2017 and generated wide controversy among some sectors of linguistic Spanishism, more uncritical internet users, as well as support for the author, the translation itself and writing in Andalú, as well as series of more calm and objective analyzes both of the text as of the controversy aroused.

Curiously, the media treatment of the news of the first official presentation of the book in Mijas (Málaga) was quite neutral and informative, which contrasts with the visceral subsequent treatment of many mass media after its presentation in Seville city, even reaching personal attacks and insulting Professor Porrah, author of the translation.

As a positive culmination, from the perspective of the Andalusian cultural movement, the controversy raised made it possible for many Andalusian-speakers to learn about the existence of writing in Andalú, which has increased the levels of Andalusian self-awareness regarding their language.

Works written in Andalusian according to the NOTA

Of the most notable written production we find, among others, that of the following authors:

a) The initial promoter of this orthographic template, Dr. Huan Porrah Blanko, who has written:

a.1) Three books, two of which are translations of well-known works into Andalusian:

¡Ehkardiyea l’armáziga k’ai hugo! Antolohía’e tehtoh en andalú der Huan Porrah Blanko. Donostia: Iralka; 2000.

Er Prinzipito. Translation of the well-known work by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry Le Petit Prince into Andalusian. Neckarsteinach (Alemania): Edition Tintenfass, 20174.

Lah mir primerah palabrah en andalú / The First Thousand Words in Andalusian. Translation of the classic by Heather Amery & Stephen Cartwright The First Thousand Words in English into Andalusian. Neckarsteinach (Alemania): Edition Tintenfass, 2018.

a.2) Two tales:

Er mihterio’er gañán”. Written in 1988, revised and published in 2000.

Er mito der Kanko u Kanke”. Published in Sociedad para el Estudio del ‘Andalú’ (Z.E.A.): Actas de la IXª Hunta d’ehkritoreh en andalú (…), 2018.

a.3) Multiple articles and reflections on the Andalusian language, written in a graphic standard NOTA-Porrah, published in the successive books of Proceedings of the Huntah d’ehkritoreh en andalú (…)5.

a.4) Other articles on the Andalusian language in non-Spanish or Andalusian languages:

“From Orality to Literacy: the Preservation and Development of the Ancient Andalusian Language through Internet”, in Crossroads of History: Experience, Memory, Orality. XIth International Oral History Conference. Vol. I. Istanbul (Turkey): IOHA -International Oral History Association- & Bogaziçi University, 15-19/06/2000; pp. 14-19. Publication No: 671.

Écrire en andalú: un défi qui prend corps envers et contre tout”, published in the literary magazine micRomania, 41 (2.02): 3-11. Bruxelles/Brussels (Wallonie): Conseil des Langues régionales endogènes; juin 2002.

b) The poet and researcher Yolanda Pérez Cortés has written the following:

b.1) Books:

– The poetry book Ezenzia’er zú. Málaga: Zoziedá pal Ehtudio’el Andalú (ZEA), 2017.

– She will publish shortly (2020) the book entitled Lah z’abeh kon nombreh andaluzeh.

b.2) Articles published in books of Proceedings (Actas) of the Huntah d’ehkritoreh en andalú (…):

“Er rebuhiyo’e mih z’orah tontah” (2012).

b.3) Articles in Spanish on the Andalusian language :

– “¡Hora de desaprender!” (2012).

c) The poet José Peral Jiménez ‘Scotta’ has published, in said Proceedings books Actas:

“Fandangoh i poemah” (2002).

“Poemah i fandangoh” (2004).

“Nueboh poemah” (2008).

“A la probesita demokrasia” (2010).

“Qanteh” (2020).

d) The teacher and poet Huarmigé Pereh Porrah has published:

“Poezíah” (2002 y 2004).

“Puñao’e berzoh” (2006).

e) The social worker and anthropologist G. Bahkeh has published:

“Por la lexe k’e mamao” (2006).

“La rikeza de la diberzidá” (2006).

“El andalú en loh papeleh” (2008).

“Un miyón de graziah, Andalú” (2008).

“Repenzando en andalú” (2010).

f) The teacher Remedioh Leiba:

“Er Kolehtibo Tamiza” (2002).

“Er trabaho zoziá i la renta bázika” (2004).

g) Kahlo K.:

“Traduzioneh der C. Bukowsky” (2004).

“Traduzioneh der Leonard Cohen i Loh Gorfoh de Kai” (2006).

“¡¡Dehratize zu mente!! Traduzión al andalú” (2008).

“L@h Malapinta. Pazodobleh i kupléh kahnabaleroh de Miha” (2012).

“Pazodobleh de la Xiriparza ¡Dehpierta! Kahnabá miheño 2014” (2014).

h) Eba Ramireh:

“La kueba der Muhtafá” (2004).

“L’andalú ehkrito i zu adahtazión a lah nuebah tehnolohíah” (2006).

“Atrapao” (2010).

i) Dr. Manuel Rodríguez Illana: “Glozah a l’andalúh ozzidentá urbano en treh tehtoh de la F.R.A.C., Alfonso Sánchez i Pedro del Pozo” (2014).

j) María Alhama Muñoz: “Er muro i La niña’e lah trensah negrah” (2012).

k) La Dra. Rosa Mª Badillo Baena: “Ija del ihtante / Hija del instante” (2018).



1 Vid. H. Porrah (2012): Gión temátiko pa la porfía a tento duna normatiba ahuntá del andalú ehkrito”, in Sociedad para el Estudio del ‘Andalú’ (Z.E.A.): Actas de la VIª Hunta d’ehkritoreh en andalú (…) / Reunión de escritores-as en andaluz / 6th Meeting of Andalusian Writers. Xiklana / Chiclana (Kai / Cádiz), from 2 to 3 November 2012; pp. 97-106.

2 “Zihtema zenziyo, uníboko, huhto i zihtemátiko (z.u.h.z.) pa ehkrebì en kuahkier dialehto de nuehtra lengua” (Porrah 2016: 137).

3 See in this regard the interesting and novel considerations collected in Francisco García Duarte (2020): “Romance andalusí, andaluz y castellano”, in Sociedad para el Estudio del ‘Andalú’ (Z.E.A.): Actas de la Xª Hunta d’ehkritoreh en andalú (…) / Reunión de escritores-as en andaluz / 10th Meeting of Andalusian Writers. Ayamonte, from 28 to 29 February 2020; pp. 17-36.

4 Translation carried out in accordance with the NOTA-Porrah 2009, which has nothing to do with the later proposal for a self-styled writing EPA —originally significant acronyms of El Prinçipito Andalûh, which later renowed as Êttánda Pa l’Andalûh.

5 Vid. web site Produzión der Huan Porrah Blanko. On line: